AcetylCarnitine side effects, pill use for mental decline in middle age and old age, and how to combine it with other brain nutrients and pills for optimal mental enhancement
Health benefit¬†and use in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological conditions
Review, research, treatment, tablet, testosterone, influence on erectile function and brain enhancement
November 11 2016

Acetylcarnitine side effects, caution, risk, danger, adverse reactions
Side effects include feeling overstimulated, restless, and nausea when a dose more than 500 mg is taken. Higher dosages could cause sleep disturbances or severe insomnia. If you happen to feel nausea, next time just take the pill with food or take a lesser dose. Headache has also been reported. Seizures have been reported in rats following overdose.

Acetylcarnitine short term positive effects, what you may notice, dosage
The mind boosting effect of acetylcarnitine is often noticed within a few hours, or even within an hour. Most people report feeling mentally sharper, having more focus and being more alert. Some find a mild mood enhancement. Acetylcarnitine may be used as an overall mind booster. The typical dosage is 250 to 500 mg once a day, preferably in the early part of the day. Side effects of overstimulation or nausea may occur at dosages greater than 300 to 500 mg.

AcetylCarnitine 300 mg each pill
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How it works, mechanism of action
Acetylcarnitine and carnitine play several important roles in the human body. These nutrients shuttle acetyl groups and fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production. Without carnitine, fatty acids cannot easily enter into mitochondria. The acetyl group of acetylcarnitine is used to form acetyl-CoA, the most important intermediary in the generation of energy from amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates. Therefore, it serves as an energy reservoir of acetyl groups and both acetylcarnitine and carnitine help improve energy production. The acetyl group of acetylcarnitine is also used to make the important brain chemical acetylcholine. Some studies suggest that perhaps it can even act as a neurotransmitter itself.
Those who take carnitine pills notice an increase in physical energy levels, but not as much mental energy. Acetylcarnitine has a significantly more immediate and noticeable mental effect than carnitine.

Acetylcarnitine Research shows several benefits:
In aging rats, chronic administration of acetylcarnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetylcarnitine and alpha lipoic acid, an antioxidant used for diabetes, may help with diabetic neuropathy in some users. A very high dose may cause heart rhythm disturbances and palpitations.

Potential Benefits of Acetylcarnitine according to published studies:
Acetylcarnitine may improve mental fatigue in those who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome

Patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetylcarnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
Is a promising treatment for those with diabetic neuropathy
May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
Acetylcarnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
Is more effective than tamoxifen in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie’s disease.
May help individuals with cerebellar ataxia.
Acetylcarnitine is suitable for clinical use in the prevention of neuronal death after peripheral nerve trauma.
May be helpful in erectile dysfunction. Other options for ED include yohimbe supplement.

Memory and hypoxia
Acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) prevents hypobaric hypoxia-induced spatial memory impairment through extracellular related kinase-mediated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 phosphorylation.
Neuroscience. 2009.
Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, a condition involving decreased availability of oxygen is known to be associated with oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. The multifactorial response of the brain and the complex signaling pathways involved therewith limits the therapeutic efficacy of several antioxidants in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), a known antioxidant that has been reported to augment neurotrophin-mediated survival mechanisms, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor involved in the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress related to brain injury and neurological disorders. The study was designed to understand the mechanisms involving Nrf2 stabilization following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The results displayed reference memory impairment in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7620 m) for 14 consecutive days which however improved on administration of ALCAR during hypoxic exposure. The study also revealed Nrf2 regulated augmented antioxidant response on administration of ALCAR which was through a novel tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor-mediated mechanism. A decrease in free radical generation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was also observed along with a concomitant increase in thioredoxin and reduced glutathione levels on administration of ALCAR during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The present study therefore reveals the therapeutic potential of ALCAR under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia and elucidates a novel mechanism of action of the drug. Vinpocetine supplement for memory and stroke improvement is useful for low brain oxygen levels.

Chronic fatigue syndrome
Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome.
Vermeulen RC, Scholte HR. Research Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Psychosom Med. 2004.
We compared the effects of acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine and both compounds on the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In an open, randomized fashion we compared 2 g/d acetyl-L-carnitine, 2 g/d propionyl-L-carnitine, and its combination in 3 groups of 30 CFS patients during 24 weeks. Effects were rated by clinical global impression of change. Secondary endpoints were the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Stroop attention concentration test. Scores were assessed 8 weeks before treatment; at randomization; after 8, 16, and 24 weeks of treatment; and 2 weeks later. Clinical global impression of change after treatment showed considerable improvement in 59% of the patients in the acetylcarnitine group and 63% in the propionylcarnitine group, but less in the acetylcarnitine plus propionylcarnitine group (37%). Acetylcarnitine significantly improved mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine improved general fatigue. Attention concentration improved in all groups, whereas pain complaints did not decrease in any group. Two weeks after treatment, worsening of fatigue was experienced by 52%, 50%, and 37% in the acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and combined group, respectively. In the acetylcarnitine group, but not in the other groups, the changes in plasma carnitine levels correlated with clinical improvement. Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. Acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.

AcetylCarnitine studies, multiple sclerosis
Comparison of the effects of acetylcarnitine and amantadine for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: results of a pilot, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial.
J Neurol Sci. 2004. Tomassini V,. University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy.
Treatment with Acetylcarnitine has been shown to improve fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but there have been no trials on the effect of Acetylcarnitine for treating fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS). To compare the efficacy of Acetyl carnitine with that of amantadine, one of the drugs most widely used to treat MS-related fatigue, 36 MS patients presenting fatigue were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, crossover study. Patients were treated for 3 months with either amantadine (100 mg twice daily) or acetylcarnitine (1 gram twice daily). Patients were rated at baseline and every 3 months according to the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the primary endpoint of the study. Secondary outcome variables were: Fatigue Impact Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Social Experience Checklist. Six patients withdrew from the study because of adverse reactions (five on amantadine and one on acetylcarnitine). Statistical analysis showed significant effects of Acetyl carnitine compared with amantadine for the Fatigue Severity Scale. There were no significant effects for any of the secondary outcome variables. Our results show that acetylcarnitine is better tolerated and more effective than amantadine for the treatment of MS-related fatigue.