Polyphenols supplements pills benefit and review
Supplements and immune system

Polyphenols are a large family of natural compounds widely distributed in plant foods. Daily consumption in the US ranges from 200 mg to 1 g.

Polyphenols include:
Phenols — vanillin
Benzoic acid derivatives–courmaric acid, caffeic acid
Flavonoids
Anthocyanidins are found in berries. Blueberries have delpinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin.
Isoflavones — Genistein, found in soy. High doses of soy isoflavones (100 mg per day) reduce symptoms of menopause.
Flavanols — catechins
Flavones — apigenin
Flavonols — quercetin, kaempferol
Flavanones — naringen
Proanthocyanidins

Pycnogenol capsule has polyphenols
Pycnogenol is a patented product obtained from the bark of French maritime pine. The primary ingredients are phenolic compounds such as catechin, epicatechin, and taxifoin, as well as flavonoids including procyanidins and proanthocyanidins. Sometimes it is combined with yohimbe bark in sexual enhancing formulas.

Uses of polyphenols
Anti-inflammatory — most have anti-inflammatory properties.
Immune system — most polyphenols have anti-microbial activity.
Anti-tumor — most have anti-carcinogenicity properties.
Anti-oxidant — Extracts from onion and various flavonoids induce the cellular antioxidant system. Onion extract and quercetin were able to increase the intracellular concentration of glutathione by approximately 50%. Polyphenols may be helpful in diabetic retinopathy.
Vasodilation and nitric oxide production — Diets rich in either red wine, quercetin or catechin induce endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta in a resting state through the enhancement of nitric oxide production, without modifying O(2)(.-) generation, thus the bioavailability of (*)NO was increased. The increase in the NO-cyclic GMP pathway explains the beneficial effect of flavonoids at vascular level.

Polyphenols reduce cancer risk
Polyphenolic compounds found in grapes, green tea, soybeans and wine lower the risk of a range of cancers, but exactly how these powerful compounds work has remained unclear. Plant-derived polyphenols can slow the growth of cancer cells in mice and curb the spread of cells by triggering a series or reactions that causes the cells to self-destruct, a process known as apoptosis.
Polyphenoal compounds found in grapes, green tea, soybeans and wine may lower the risk of a range of cancers. Polyphenols can slow the growth of cancer cells and curb the spread of cells by triggering a series or reactions that causes the cells to self-destruct, a process known as apoptosis. EGCG is a polyphenol found in green tea that suppresses cancer formation in a variety of tissues through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), growth factor-related cell signaling, activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-B (NF-kappaB), topoisomerase I, matrix metalloproteinases and other potential targets.

Cholesterol
Apple polyphenols influence cholesterol metabolism in healthy subjects with relatively high body mass index.
J Oleo Sci. 2007. Fundamental Research Laboratory, Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Moriya-shi, Ibaraki, Japan.
We performed a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study on moderately obese male and female subjects with a body mass index ranging from 23 to 30 to evaluate the efficacy of 12-week intake of polyphenols extracted from apples and hop bract (600 mg/day). We confirmed that 12-week ingestion of polyphenol containing capsules significantly decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. The effects of the apple polyphenol containing capsules were more marked than those of the hop bract polyphenol containing capsules. The visceral fat area and the level of adiponectin in the group administered apple polyphenols improved in comparison with the control group. Blood and physical examinations revealed no clinical problems, and no side effects were observed. These results demonstrate that apple polyphenols regulate fat metabolism in healthy subjects with relatively high body mass index.

Chlorogenic acid polyphenol
Chlorogenic acid is one of the most abundant polyphenols in fruits. Chlorogenic acid has anxiety reducing effects coupled with antioxidant activity. Chlorogenic acid is found in fruits such as plums (Mirabelle), apples and cherries.

Chocolate polyphenols
Chocolate has important flavonoids (a type of polyphenols). Many flavonoids dilate blood vessels and have antioxidant properties. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of either dark or white chocolate bars on blood pressure and glucose and insulin responses to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in healthy subjects. After a 7 day cocoa-free phase, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive for 15 days either 100 grams of dark chocolate bars, which contained approximately 500 mg polyphenols, or 90 grams of white chocolate bars, which has no polyphenols. Results showed that systolic blood pressure was slightly lower after dark than after white chocolate ingestion by about 4 points and insulin sensitivity was enhanced which means blood sugar can enter cells and tissues more easily rather than linger in the bloodstream causing problems.

French fries
Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.
J Food Sci. 2007. Chiou A, Salta FN, Kalogeropoulos N, Mylona A, Ntalla I, Andrikopoulos NK.
Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physical Chemistry of Foods, Dept. of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio Univ., Venizelou Ave., Kallithea, Athens, Greece.
Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated . All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

Purple grape juice versus white grape juice polyphenols
Purple juices have higher total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to white juices, and this activity is correlated with total polyphenol content.